Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Peru covers 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi). The Andes Mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean, dividing the country into three geographic regions. The costa (coast), to the west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. The sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes; it includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the 6,768 m (22,205 ft) Huascarán. The third region is the selva (jungle), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. Almost 60% of the country's area is located within this region.
The amount of carbon dioxide that could be reduced through FIP interventions in Peru to reduce deforestation and forest degradation over the next seven years, or by over 50% in targeted areas.
Most Peruvian rivers originate in the peaks of the Andes and drain into one of three basins. Those that drain toward the Pacific Ocean are steep and short, flowing only intermittently. Tributaries of the Amazon River are longer, have a much larger flow, and are less steep once they exit the sierra. Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca (the largest volume lake in South America located at an altitude of 3,800 meters above sea level) are generally short and have a large flow. Peru's longest rivers are the Ucayali, the Marañón, the Putumayo, the Yavarí, the Huallaga, the Urubamba, the Mantaro, and the Amazon.
Peru, unlike other equatorial countries, does not have an exclusively tropical climate; the influence of the Andes and the Humboldt Current cause great climatic diversity within the country. The costa has moderate temperatures, low precipitations, and high humidity, except for its warmer, wetter northern reaches. In the sierra, rain is frequent during summer, and temperature and humidity diminish with altitude up to the frozen peaks of the Andes. The selva is characterized by heavy rainfall and high temperatures, except for its southernmost part, which has cold winters and seasonal rainfall. Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru has a high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals reported as of 2003; 5,855 of them endemic. The Peruvian government has established several protected areas for their preservation.
At the same time, Peru is challenged by high deforestation rates, particularly in the Amazon region, which corresponds to more than 94 percent of Peru's total forests. According to the Informe Nature Services Peru 2012, its average annual deforestation rate was 14 percent from 2000-2009. Furthermore, land use change and forestry account for 41 percent of the country's greenhouse gas emissions, more than doubling the next closest sector which is agriculture at 20 percent (according to the Climate Change Draft Plan of 2013). Drivers of these high rates include traditional small scale farming, medium- and large-scale agriculture, and principally timber logging and non-timber such as Brazil nuts and rubber harvesting. Underlying factors include poverty and social exclusion, population growth, and low market access for forest ecosystem goods coupled with growing demand for products from competing land uses like agro-fuels or industrial crops. An indirect driver is institutional in that there is an absence of land use planning, land rights, control and capacity in sectorial and territorial approaches of public and natural resource management policy. To address these issues, Peru developed an investment plan that will utilize $50 million from CIF's Forest Investment Program to provide integrated forest landscape management in key regions that are particularly vulnerable to deforestation. It further includes cross-cutting measures for enabling conditions in governance and land titling that will allow for interventions to reduce pressure on forests, recovery of degraded areas, and improved forest competitiveness. The investment plan was designed in close coordination between Peru, the Inter-American Development Bank, World Bank Group (IBRD), and key Peruvian stakeholders, including Indigenous Peoples and local communities. FIP-financed projects are expected to mobilize an additional $37.3 million in public and private co-financing.
The investment plan will also take steps to reduce emissions and increase carbon reservoirs in pilot areas in close line with measures in Peru's national REDD+ strategy, which is being designed to coordinate efforts across sectors and agencies toward the conservation and sustainable use of forests, protected areas, indigenous lands and permanent production forests. REDD+ aims to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, fostering conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancing forest carbon stocks.